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  • 2010-12-02 15:20:05
  • Article ID: 571372

Bizarre Reptile Challenges Notion of Crocodiles as 'Living Fossils'

  • Credit: Photo by Jeanne Neville.

    Holotype skull and lower jaw of Simosuchus clarki in side view

  • Credit: Artwork by Lucille Betti-Nash.

    Skeletal reconstruction of Simosuchus clarki in side view

  • Credit: Photo of type locality by Raymond Rogers; sculpture of Simosuchus by Boban Filipovic; montage by Lucille Betti-Nash.

    Life reconstruction of Simosuchus clarki as it may have appeared walking through the semi-arid grasslands of Madagascar.

Bizarre reptile challenges notion of crocodiles as ‘living fossils’ DEERFIELD, IL (November, 2010) – The 20-odd species of living alligators and crocodiles are nearly all that remains of what was once an incredibly diverse group of reptiles called crocodyliforms. Recent discoveries of fossil crocodyliforms have revealed that some of these reptiles, instead of conforming to traditional crocodile norms (long snout, conical teeth, strong jaw and long tail) possessed a dazzling array of adaptations that resulted in unique and sometimes bizarre anatomy. These discoveries have provided new information about a large and important group of extinct animals, while simultaneously helping to dispel the notion of crocodiles as static, unchanging ‘living fossils.’ The epitome of crocodyliform bizarreness is represented by Simosuchus clarki, which lived in Madagascar at the end of the “Age of Dinosaurs” (about 66 million years ago). First described preliminarily in 2000 from a well-preserved skull and partial skeleton, Simosuchus shattered the crocodyliform mold with its blunt, pug-nosed snout, leaf-shaped teeth, and short, tank-like body covered in a suit of bony armor. Over the next decade, expeditions to Madagascar recovered more skulls and skeletons, now representing nearly every bone of Simosuchus. A reconstruction of this uncommonly complete fossil reptile and an interpretation of its place in the crocodile evolutionary tree became the subject of a newly published Memoir of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. Edited by David W. Krause and Nathan J. Kley of Stony Brook University, the large, densely illustrated volume gives an account of fossil crocodyliform anatomy that is unprecedented in its thoroughness. “The completeness and preservation of the specimens demanded detailed treatment,” said Krause. “It just seemed unconscionable to not document such fantastic fossil material of this unique animal.” A separate chapter is devoted to each of the major parts of the animal – skull, backbone, limbs and armor. “The skull and lower jaw in particular are preserved almost completely,” said Kley. “This, combined with high-resolution CT scans of the most exquisitely preserved specimen, has allowed us to describe the structure of the head skeleton – both externally and internally – in exceptional detail, including even the pathways of the tiniest nerves and blood vessels.” But while it is easy to lose oneself in the details of these incredible fossils, one of the most amazing features is the overall shape of the animal. Two feet long, pudgy, with a blunt snout and the shortest tail of any known crocodyliform, Simosuchus was not equipped to snatch unsuspecting animal prey from the water’s edge as many modern crocodiles do. “Simosuchus lived on land, and its crouched posture and wide body probably meant it was not very agile or fast,” said Joseph Sertich, who participated in the study. In addition, its short, underslung jaw and weak, leaf-shaped teeth show that it probably munched on a diet of plants. While the idea of a gentle, vegetarian crocodile is unusual to us today, the new memoir makes it easy to imagine Simosuchus ambling through its semi-arid grassland habitat, pausing to nip at plants and crouching low to hide from predators like the meat-eating dinosaur Majungasaurus. The paleontologists also found evidence that pointed to the evolutionary origin of Simosuchus. “Interestingly, an analysis of evolutionary relationships suggests Simosuchus’ closest relative lived much earlier, in Egypt,” said Sertich. Details like these are crucial to deciphering the pattern of the dispersal of life around the globe, an area of scientific study known as biogeography. Whatever its ancestry, Simosuchus has set a surprising new standard for what constitutes a crocodile. Said Sertich, “It’s probably the most bizarre in an already very strange group of small, terrestrial crocodiles known from the other southern continents during this time.” Dr. Christopher Brochu of the University of Iowa agreed. “This is easily the most bizarre crocodyliform ever found.” Brochu, who specializes in fossil crocodyliforms but was not directly involved with the study, explained that this strangeness may have been tied to the special niche Simosuchus occupied in its ecosystem. “A lot of the ecological roles filled by dinosaurs in the north were filled by crocs in the south,” he said. “That led to some really weird crocs.” Brochu also drew a striking contrast between Simosuchus and one modern-day crocodyliform. “Think about everything the slender-snouted forms like the Indian gharial do – long snout with needlelike teeth, jaw joint placed as far back as possible – and Simosuchus does the opposite. Its snout is so short the skull is almost cubical. The teeth are anything but needlelike, and the jaw joint is shoved beneath the ear. It’s doing (and this is a metaphorical “do”) everything it can to not be a gharial.” As strange as Simosuchus was, the incredible completeness and preservation of its fossils, coupled with an equally impressive scientific investigation, have yielded one of the most comprehensive volumes of crocodyliform anatomy ever to be published. “Very few crocodyliforms – even those alive today – have been subjected to this level of analysis,” said Brochu. “This reference is going to be used for decades.” ### ABOUT THE SOCIETY OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY Founded in 1940 by thirty-four paleontologists, the Society now has more than 2,400 members representing professionals, students, artists, preparators and others interested in vertebrate paleontology. It is organized exclusively for educational and scientific purposes, with the object of advancing the science of vertebrate paleontology. The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (JVP) is the leading journal of professional vertebrate paleontology and the flagship publication of the Society. It was founded in 1980 by Dr. Jiri Zidek and publishes contributions on all aspects of vertebrate paleontology. The article appears in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(6, Supplement) published by Taylor and Francis. Citation: D. W. Krause and N. J. Kley (eds.), Simosuchus clarki (Crocodyliformes: Notosuchia) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir 10. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(6, Supplement). Journal Web site: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology: AUTHOR CONTACT INFORMATION David W. Krause (Editor) Department of Anatomical Sciences Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794-8081, U.S.A. Tel: +1-631-444-3117 Nathan J. Kley (Editor) Department of Anatomical Sciences Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794-8081, U.S.A. Tel: +1-631-444-6912 Gregory A. Buckley Evelyn T. Stone College of Professional Studies Roosevelt University Schaumburg, Illinois 60173, U.S.A. Justin Georgi Department of Anatomy Midwestern University Glendale, AZ 85308, U.S.A. Joseph R. Groenke Department of Anatomical Sciences Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794-8081, U.S.A. Robert V. Hill Department of Anatomy New York College of Osteopathic Medicine Old Westbury, NY 11568-8000, U.S.A. Sophia C. Kast Geology Department Macalester College 1600 Grand Avenue St. Paul, Minnesota 55105, U.S.A. Patrick M O'Connor, PhD Department of Biomedical Sciences 228 Irvine Hall Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine Athens, OH 45701 Tel: +1-740-593-2110 Raymond R. Rogers Geology Department Macalester College 1600 Grand Avenue St. Paul, Minnesota 55105, U.S.A. Joseph J. W. Sertich Department of Anatomical Sciences Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794-8081, U.S.A. Dr. Alan W. Turner Department of Anatomical Sciences Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794-8081, U.S.A. OTHER SCIENTISTS NOT DIRECTLY INVOLVED WITH THE STUDY Christopher A. Brochu Associate Professor Department of Geoscience University of Iowa Iowa City, IA 52242, U.S.A. Tel: +1-319-353-1808 Fax: +1-319-335-1821

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Cold and Bubbly: The Sensory Qualities that Best Quench Thirst

New research from the Monell Center finds that oral perceptions of coldness and carbonation help to reduce thirst. The findings could guide sensory approaches to increase fluid intake in populations at risk for dehydration, including the elderly, soldiers, and athletes.

J.R. Macdonald Lab receives nearly $8 million DOE grant renewal

MANHATTAN -- A nearly $8 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting the "bread and butter" physics research at Kansas State University's James R. Macdonald Laboratory. The grant is a three-year renewal award, "Structure and Dynamics of Atoms, Ions, Molecules and Surfaces." "This big operational grant is our bread-and-butter," said Itzik Ben-Itzhak, university distinguished professor of physics and director of the J.

University contributes art to the new downtown arena

A number of Sac State artworks are joining Jeff Koons' "Coloring Book" in exhibits at the new Golden 1 Center. (Sacramento State/Rob Neep) More photosSac State Professor Rachel Clarke and alumnus Bryan Valenzuela check out the installation of Valenzuela's "Multitudes Converge" glass sculpture at the Golden 1 Center.

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New Method for Reporting Solar Data

A straightforward new way to calculate, compile, and graphically present solar radiation measurements in a format that is accessible to decision makers and the general public has been developed by researchers at the University of Texas at Austin and is described in the Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy.

Trapped Sunlight Cleans Water

High energy costs are one drawback of making clean water from waste effluents. According to an article in the journal Biomicrofluidics, a new system that combines two different technologies proposes to break down contaminants using the cheapest possible energy source, sunlight.

Report: Policies to Spur Renewable Energy Can Lower Energy Costs

The South could pay less for its electricity in 20 years than is currently projected if strong public policies are enacted to spur renewable energy production and use, according to a report released today by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Duke University.

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Citi Grant Helps University Students Succeed

Citi Community Development, part of the Citi family of businesses, supports an innovative Academic Success Program at South Dakota State University. The program is designed to help students who have been re-admitted to SDSU following suspension due to low academic achievement.

Iowa State Engineer and Goodrich Partner to Develop Fuel Nozzles

Hui Hu, an Iowa State University associate professor of aerospace engineering, is working with engineers from the Goodrich Corp. to test and characterize the next generation of fuel nozzles.

CSB to Hold Public Hearing Tomorrow, December 15, as Part of the CSB Deepwater Horizon Investigation

CSB Board Will Hear Testimony on how Offshore Drilling is Managed and Regulated in Other Countries

Cornell Joins Team Taking Head-first Plunge Into Algae Biofuels

Cornell University researchers have joined other scientists and a biofuel research company on a mission to develop a commercial-scale algae-to-fuel facility by 2015. The effort is backed by a $9 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy.

Engineering Researchers Partner With Toyota; DOE Grant Will Further Work Toward a More Efficient Charger for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

A $3.9 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy will allow electrical engineering researchers at the University of Arkansas to continue contributing to the development of a compact and highly efficient silicon-carbide charger for hybrid electric vehicles. The benefits of the project extend beyond vehicles into other areas, such as wind and solar power, and could lead to reduced energy consumption in the United States.

Research Looks at Alternative Power for Military

South Dakota State University has a major role in a $10 million project to deliver alternative power technologies to help the U.S. military supply power to units in the field. The three-year project began in May 2009.

Mixing Blood and Oil: Conference Tackles Similar Challenges from Two Major Industries

Scientists and engineers from two of the nation's largest industries - medicine and energy - came together this week to explore the synergies in moving oil and pumping blood.

Time Ripe to Move Energy Storage Idea Off Drawing Board

Need has caught up with Case Western Reserve University researcher Gerhard Welsch's design for a self-healing, high-energy capacitor he patented a decade ago. ARPA-E has granted Welsch $2.25 million to start producing the small and lightweight device for hybrid and electric cars and more.

Registration Open for Sandia-Sponsored 4th International Conference on Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources

Registration is open for the 4th International Conference on the Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources, the premier event for technical discussion of electric integration of new energy resources.

Advanced Energy Conference To Illuminate Latest Technologies For 21st Century Clean Energy Economy

Leading Energy Organizations to Highlight Latest Job-Producing Energy Technologies at Nov. 8-9 Conference in N.Y.C.

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